Wednesday, December 11, 2013

New Wonders Of The World

New  Wonders Of The World :

1. Great Wall of China
Since 7th century BC 
China 

2. Petra
100 BC 
Jordan

3. Christ the Redeemer
Opened October 12, 1931
Brazil

4. Machu Picchu
AD 1450
Peru

5. Chichen Itza
AD 600
Mexico

6. Colosseum
Completed AD 80
Italy

Last  but  not  least 

7. Taj Mahal
Completed AD 1648
India

and  complementary  as 

8. Great Pyramid of Giza (Honorary Candidate)
Completed c. 2560 BC
Egypt

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Saturday, December 7, 2013

Nelson Mandela: A Legend

     His excellency Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the first black South African to hold the office, and the first elected in a fully representative election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalised racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation. Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997. 

     Internationally, Mandela was Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. A Xhosa born to the Thembu royal family, Mandela attended the Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand, where he studied law. Living in Johannesburg, he became involved in anti-colonial politics, joining the ANC and becoming a founding member of its Youth League. 

     After the South African National Party came to power in 1948, he rose to prominence in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign, was appointed superintendent of the organisation's Transvaal chapter and presided over the 1955 Congress of the People. Working as a lawyer, he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC leadership, was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961 in association with the South African Communist Party, leading a sabotage campaign against the apartheid government. In 1962 he was arrested, convicted of conspiracy to overthrow the government, and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial. 

     Mandela served 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. An international campaign lobbied for his release, which was granted in 1990 amid escalating civil strife. Mandela published his autobiography and opened negotiations with President F.W. de Klerk to abolish apartheid and establish multiracial elections in 1994, in which he led the ANC to victory. As South Africa's first black president Mandela formed a Government of National Unity in an attempt to defuse racial tension. 

     He also promulgated a new constitution and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Continuing the former government's liberal economic policy, his administration introduced measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator between Libya and the United Kingdom in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, and oversaw military intervention in Lesotho. He declined to run for a second term, and was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela subsequently became an elder statesman, focusing on charitable work in combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the Nelson Mandela Foundation. Although Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life, he became widely popular following his release. 

     Despite right-wing critics who continued to denounce him as a communist sympathiser and terrorist, he gained international acclaim for his activism, having received more than 250 honours, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Soviet Order of Lenin. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, or as Tata ("Father"); he is often described as "the father of the nation".

Monday, December 2, 2013

"World Famous Waterfalls"

A waterfall is one of the most amazing creations that nature has to offer. There is just something about the sight of thousands of tons of water flowing over a cliff and plunging into the river below. There are many beautiful waterfalls around the world but this list features the 10 greatest and most amazing waterfalls we were able to find.
10Jog Falls
Jog Falls
Jog Falls, created by the River Sharavathi, falling from a height of 253 meters (829 feet), is the highest waterfalls in India. Before the rainy season Jog Falls is nearly unrecognizable with only a pair of thin streams of water trickling down the cliff. But during the monsoon season the waterfall comes to life and exceeds even Kaieteur Falls in Guyana in terms of height and volume.
9Huangguoshu
Huangguoshu
Measuring 77.8 meters (255 feet) high and 101 meters (330 feet) wide, Huangguoshu is one of the largest waterfalls in Asia and part of a group of 18 waterfalls in the surrounding area. A 134 meter (440 foot) long naturally formed cave in the back of the Huangguoshu allows visitors to view the waterfall from a very close range and one can even touch the water.
8Gullfoss
Gullfoss
Gullfoss (“Golden Falls”) is a magnificient 32 meter high double waterfall on the White River (Hvítá). It is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Iceland. The flow of the river from the regular rains and the glacial runoff, particularly in summer, makes it the largest volume falls in Europe.
7Detian Falls
Detian Falls
The Detian Falls is situated on the border between China and Vietnam. It is, in fact, the fourth largest cross-border falls in the world after Niagara, Victoria and Iguazu. Due to the various border conflicts between the two countries the area has only recently been opened to tourism.
6Blue Nile Falls
Blue Nile Falls
Known as Tis Issat (“smoking water”) in Amharic, the Blue Nile Falls are located on the Blue Nile river in northern Ethiopia. Although much of the water is now diverted to a power dam, it is still a beautiful sight and one of Ethiopia’s best known tourist attractions.
5Kaieteur Falls
Kaieteur Falls
Kaieteur Falls is located on the Potaro River in the centre of Guyana’s rainforest. It is one of the most powerful waterfalls in the world, averaging 663 cubic meters per second (23,400 cubic feet per second). With a free fall height of 226 meters (741 feet) it is about five times higher than Niagara Falls and about two times the height of the Victoria Falls. While there are many higher falls, few have the combination of height and water volume.
4Angel Falls
Angel Falls
Angel Falls or Salto Ángel is the world’s highest waterfall, dropping a total of 978 meter from the summit of the Auyan Tepuy, and with an 807meter uninterrupted drop. Because the falls are located in an isolated jungle region of Venezuela the only access to Canaima National Park, the gateway to Angel Falls, is by air.
3Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
Probably the most famous waterfall in the world, The Niagara Falls are located between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York. Niagara Falls is actually three different falls, the American Falls, Bridal Veil Falls and Horseshoe Falls. Horseshoe Falls is located on the Canadian side while the other are located in New York. With more than 14 million visitors each year it is one of the most visited tourist attraction in the world.


2Victoria Falls

Victoria Falls
The Victoria Falls (indigenous name: Mosi-oa-Tunya meaning “The Smoke That Thunders”) are located on the border between Zimbabwe and Zambia. Victoria Falls is often called the largest waterfall in the world, although it is neither the highest nor the widest. It has a width of 1.7 kilometers (1 miles) and height of 108 meters (360 ft), roughly twice the height of North America’s Niagara Falls. In combined height and width Victoria Falls is rivaled only by South America’s Iguazu Falls.
1Iguazu Falls
#1 of Greatest Waterfalls In The Worldf
One of the great natural wonders of the world, Iguaçu Falls is situated on the border between Brazil and Argentina. The waterfall system consists of 275 falls along the Iguazu River. The majority of the falls are about 64 metres (210 ft) in height. The most impressive of them all is the Devil’s Throat a U-shaped, 82 meter high (269 ft), 150 meter (492 ft) wide and 700 meter (2300 ft) long waterfall.
Coutesy: touropia

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