Friday, September 30, 2011

Notes On Electricity: Generation, Transmission & Distribution

  • Electrical power system consist of 4 major categories:
    a. Generation System
    b. Transmission System
    c. Distribution System
    d. Utility System
  • Majority of electricity (65-70%) is produced by steam turbine plants and fuel is Coal or Nuclear.
  • Hydro electric generation (25-30%) forms the 2nd largest means of generating electricity.
  • Renewable sources of energy fall in a very small range (2-5%).
  • Renewable sources of energy – solar, wind, ocean, bio gas, geothermal, etc.
  • Gas Turbines are used during short periods of high demand for Peaking.
  • Large generators voltage rating or generation is @ 13.8kV to 24kV voltage levels.
  • Generator voltage is stepped up to transmission voltage level using transformers.
    Because a. Generation and Distribution stations are far away, b. There will be huge I
    2R losses (transmission losses or copper losses) if the voltage level is low, c. Transformers can transform this energy to higher voltage levels, without much loss.
  • Transmission voltage levels in the range from 115kV to 765kV.
  • Standard transmission voltages are 115kV, 138kV, 230kV, 345kV, 500kV and 765kV.
  • At distribution station, the transformer steps down the voltages.
  • Low voltage ranges from 34.5kV to 138kV at distribution station.
  • Distribution standard voltages are 4.16kV, 12.47kV, 13.2kV, 13.8kV and 34.5kV i.e. range is from 5kV to 34.5kV.
  • Why we cannot use higher voltages directly?
    a. Difficult to have equipments with such a high insulation rating.
    b. Not economical.
  • Distribution transformers are used to further step down to utilization voltage levels, usually at 600V.
  • Standard utilization voltages are 480Y/277V, 460V, 208Y/120V, 240V, and 120V.
  • Higher utilization voltages – 6.9kV and 4.16kV are standard voltages for supplying large industrial motor loads.

Important Countries & Places Changed Their Names:

OLD NAME CHANGED NAME
Abyssinia Ethiopia
Angora Ankara
Basutoland Lesotho
Batavia Djakarta
Burma Mayanmar
Bechuanaland Botswana
British Guiana Guyana
Combodia Kampuchea
Cape Canaveral Cape Kennedy
Ceylon Sri Lanka
Christina Oslo
Congo Zaire
Constantinople Istanbul
Dacca Dhaka
Dutch East Indies Indonesia
Dutch Guiana Surinam
Formosa Taiwan
Gold Coast Ghana
Holland The Netherlands
Japan Nippon
Malaya Malaysia
Manchukuo Manchuri
Mesopotamia Iraq
Northern Rhodesia Zambia
Nyasaland Malawi
Peking (China) Beijing
Persia Iran
Rangoon Yongon
Rhodesia Zimbabwe
Salisbury Harare
Sam Thailand
South-West Africa Namibia
Thanganyika Zanzibar Tanzania

Thursday, September 29, 2011

GK_Important Battles And Wars In India...

Battle of Hydaspes 326 B.C.Alexander the Great, defeated Porus, the Paurava king. Impressed by the valour of Porus, ultimately Alexander returned his kingdom to him.

Battle of Kalinga 261 B.C.Ashoka defeated the king of Kalinga. Ashoka embraced Buddhism and preached it during the rest of his life after this war.

First Battle of Tarain or Thaneswar A.D.
1191  Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeated Mohammed Ghori. Second Battle of Tarain A.D. 1192—Mohammed Ghori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Ghori’s victory paved the way for the establishment of Muslim rule in India.

First Battle of Panipat 1526Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi. This laid the foundation of the Mughal rule in India.

Battle of Khanwah 1527 Babar defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar. This battle resulted in the defeat of the powerful Rajput confederacy.

Second Battle of Panipat 1556Bairam Khan (Akbar’s General) defeated Hemu (the Hindu General and right-hand man of Mohd. Adil Shah). It also ended the Afghan Rule and Mughal Rule began instead.

Battle of Talikota 1564- 65United alliance between Bijapur, Bidar, Ahmednagar and Golkonda under Hussain Nizam Shah defeated Ram Raja of Vijayanagar. It destroyed the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar.

Battle of Haldighati 1576Akbar’s forces headed by Raja Man Singh defeated Rana Pratap, the brave Rajput king. Though defeated, Rana Pratap refused to accept Mughal authority and carried on warfare till his death.

Battle of Plassey 1757 The English under Lord Clive defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah.It brought Muslim Rule in Bengal to an end and laid foundations of the British Rule in India.

Battle of Wandiwash 1760The English defeated the French. The battle sealed the fate of the French in India and paved the way for English rule in India.

Third Battle of Panipat 1761Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated Marathas. It gave a terrible blow to the Maratha power. It made the field clear for the English.

Battle of Buxar 1764 Fought in 1764 between the forces of the English and the combined forces of Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-Daulah (Nawab of Oudh) and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam. The English victory at Buxar finally riveted the shackles of the Company’s rule upon Bengal.

First Mysore War (1767- 68)In 1768, Haider Ali was defeated by the English relinquishing all his rights over Mysore in favour of the English.

Second Mysore War 1780A grand alliance between Haider Ali, the Nizam and the Marathas was formed and Haider Ali. He defeated the English and took possession of Arcot and became the undisputed master of the Carnatic.

Third Mysore (War 1790- 92)—Fought between the English and Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan had to submit and was compelled to sign the Treaty of Seringapattam stripped him of half his territory.

Fourth Mysore War 1799 The British forces under Arthur Wellesley defeated Tipu Sultan, which brought the end of the Tipu Sultan. Maratha War 1803-05—It weakened the Maratha power. The English annexed Tanjore, Surat and Carnatic.

Fourth Maratha War (1817- 18)—The British forces defeated Marathas and this campaign finally extinguished the Maratha Empire.

Battle of Cheelianwala 1849Forces of the East India Company under Lord Hugh Gough defeated the Sikhs under Sher Singh.

Burmese War 1885As a result of this War, the whole of Burma was occupied by the English and made a part of India.

Afghan War III 1919As a result of this War, Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed by which Afghanistan was recognised as an independent State.

lndo-Pak War 1965This was Pakistan’s second attack on India. While India had the upper hand, the fighting was brought to a stop by a call for ceasefire issued by the Security Council. Later on, Tashkent accord was signed between the two nations.


Pak War Dec 1971 Pakistan started the war attacking India on Dec 3. India defeated Pakistan on all fronts. Pakistani occupation forces, numbering about one lakh, in East Bengal (Bangladesh) surrendered. Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation.

Mind This Thoughts:

Imagination is more important than knowledge.

Three things cannot long be hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.

Never let anyone come to you and leave without being happier. 

The secret of happiness is to work on yourself so that you may give to others.

To listen well, is almost to answer.

Comment is free, but facts are sacred.

Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he could only do a little.

Yesterday is history. Tomorrow is mystery. Today is a gift. That's why it's called the present.

The beautiful thing about learning is that nobody can take it away from you.

Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.

What is false lasts until tomorrow, what is pure lasts for eternity. 

Rest from having done your best, and let others speak as they want.

Music gives soul to our hearts, and wings to our thoughts.

A life is never ended until all the lives it has touched have ended too.

Problems cannot be solved by thinking within the framework in which they were created.

The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be ignited.

Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.

Confusion is the beginning of wisdom.

There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.

Reading without reflecting is like eating without digesting.

Belief is when someone else does the thinking.

Invest a few moments in thinking.  It will pay good interest.

When a being learns to love all creatures, he becomes invulnerable.

The greatest gift there is, and it wears it's name well, is the present.

Sometimes, hope is what makes us smile; Other times, a smile is what can bring us hope. 

Opinion is that exercise of human will which helps make a decision without information. 

There is only one thing that makes a dream impossible to achieve: the fear of failure.

Never look down on anybody unless you're helping them up.

A person without a sense of humour is like a wagon without springs.

The best thing about the future is that it comes only one day at a time.
  

''Computer Technical Words : How Its Named''

1. Ada - a programming language named after Ada Lovelace, who is considered by many to be the first programmer.

2. CPU - An acronym for Central Processing Unit and is often used to refer to a computer system, such as “That beige box sitting next to my 24” flat screen monitor is my new CPU.” The “beige box” being referred to in the aforementioned statement is a computer system and not a CPU, the CPU is the chip inside the computer system known specifically as the microprocessor. Prior to the invention of the microprocessor in 1971 by Intel (the 4004) CPU’s were circuits consisting of many chips to make up the function of a programmable information processing and manipulation device.

3. Linux - an operating system kernel, and the common name for the operating system which uses it.
Linux creator Linus Torvalds originally used the Minix operating system on his computer, didn't like it, liked MS-DOS less, and started a project to develop an operating system that would address the problems of Minix. Hence the working name was Linux (Linus' Minix). Originally, however, Linus had planned to have it named Freax (free + freak + x). His friend Ari Lemmke encouraged Linus to upload it to a network so it could be easily downloaded. Ari gave Linus a directory called linux on his FTP server, as he did not like the name Freax.

4. C - a programming language named because Dennis Ritchie improved on the B language and called it New B. He later called it C

5. BASIC - In computer programming, BASIC (an acronym which stands for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages designed to be easy to use.

6. JavaScript - a programming language
It was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the name Mocha, which was later renamed to Live Script, and finally to JavaScript. The change of name from LiveScript to JavaScript roughly coincided with Netscape adding support for Java technology in its Netscape Navigator web browser. JavaScript was first introduced and deployed in the Netscape browser version 2.0B3 in December 1995. The naming has caused confusion, giving the impression that the language is a spin-off of Java, and it has been characterized by many as a marketing ploy by Netscape to give JavaScript the cachet of what was then the hot new web-programming language.

7. Java - a programming language.
Originally called "D", but with the connotation of a near-failing mark on a report card the language was renamed Oak by Java-creator James Gosling, from the tree that stood outside his window. The programming team at Sun had to look for a substitute name as there was already another programming language called Oak. "Java" was selected from a list of suggestions, primarily because it is a popular slang term for coffee, especially that grown on the island of Java. As the programmers drank a lot of coffee, this seemed an appropriate name. Many people mistakenly think that Java is indeed an acronym and spell it JAVA. When one of the original Java programmers from Sun was asked to define JAVA he said it stood for nothing, but if it must stand for something: "Just Another Vague Acronym."

8. Red Hat Linux - a Linux distribution from Red Hat.
Company founder Marc Ewing was given the Cornell lacrosse team cap (with red and white stripes) while at college by his grandfather. People would turn to him to solve their problems, and he was referred to as "that guy in the red hat". He lost the cap and had to search for it desperately. The manual of the beta version of Red Hat Linux had an appeal to readers to return his Red Hat if found by anyone.

9. Google - search engine on the web.
The name started as an exaggerated boast about the amount of information the search-engine would be able to search. It was originally named 'Googol', a word for the number represented by 1 followed by 100 zeros. The word was originally invented by Milton Sirotta, nephew of mathematician Edward Kasner in 1938 during a discussion of large numbers and exponential notation.

10. Daemon - a process in an operating system that runs in the background.
It is falsely considered an acronym for Disk And Execution MONitor. According to the original team that introduced the concept, "the use of the word daemon was inspired by the Maxwell's demon of physics and thermodynamics (an imaginary agent which helped sort molecules with differing velocities and worked tirelessly in the background)" thus evading the Laws of Thermodynamics. The earliest use appears to have been in the phrase "daemon of Socrates", which meant his "guiding or indwelling spirit; his genius", also a pre-Christian equivalent of the "Guardian Angel", or, alternatively, a demigod (who bears only an etymological connection to the word "demon"). The term was embraced, and possibly popularized, by the Unix operating systems which supported multiple background processes: various local (and later Internet) services were provided by daemons. This is exemplified by the BSD mascot, John Lasseter's drawing of a friendly imp (copyright Marshall Kirk McKusick). Thus, a daemon is something that works magically without anyone being much aware of it. Note that an alternative spelling is 'daemon', which is sometimes slightly differentiated in purpose from 'demon'.

11. C++ - an object-oriented programming language and a successor to the C programming language. C++ creator Bjarne Stroustrup called his new language "C with Classes" and then "new C". Because of which the original C began to be called "old C" which was considered insulting to the C community. At this time Rick Mascitti suggested the name C++ as a successor to C. In C the '++' operator increments the value of the variable it is appended to, thus C++ would increment the value of C.

12. Booting or bootstrapping - The term booting or bootstrapping a computer was inspired by the story of the Baron Münchhausen where he pulls himself out of a swamp by the straps on his boots.

13. PHP - a server-side scripting language.
Originally called "Personal Home Page Tools" by creator Rasmus Lerdorf, it was rewritten by developers Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans who gave it the recursive name "PHP Hypertext Preprocessor". Lerdorf currently insists the name should not be thought of as standing for anything, for he selected "Personal Home Page" as the name when he did not foresee PHP evolving into a general-purpose programming language.

14. TWAIN - a standard for acquiring data from image scanners.
"Twain" is a dated word for "two". Although TWAIN is not an acronym, it has often been referred to as an acronym for "Technology Without An Intelligent Name".

15. Spam - unwanted repetitious messages, such as unsolicited bulk e-mail.
The term spam is derived from the Monty Python SPAM sketch, set in a cafe where everything on the menu includes SPAM luncheon meat. While a customer plaintively asks for some kind of food without SPAM in it, the server reiterates the SPAM-filled menu. Soon, a chorus of Vikings join in with a song: "SPAM, SPAM, SPAM, SPAM, SPAM, lovely SPAM, wonderful SPAM", over and over again, drowning out all conversation.

16. Virus - a piece of program code that spreads by making copies of itself.
The term virus was first used as a technical computer science term by Fred Cohen in his 1984 paper "Experiments with Computer Viruses", where he credits Len Adleman with coining it. Although Cohen's use of virus may have been the first academic use, it had been in the common parlance long before that. A mid-1970s science fiction novel by David Gerrold, When H.A.R.L.I.E. was One, includes a description of a fictional computer program called VIRUS that worked just like a virus (and was countered by a program called ANTIBODY). The term "computer virus" also appears in the comic book "Uncanny X-Men" No. 158, published in 1982. A computer virus's basic function is to insert its own executable code into that of other existing executable files, literally making it the electronic equivalent to the biological virus, the basic function of which is to insert its genetic information into that of the invaded cell, forcing the cell to reproduce the virus.

17. Zip - a file format now also used as a verb to mean compress. 
The file format was created by Phil Katz, and given the name by his friend Robert Mahoney. The compression tool Phil Katz created was called PKZIP. Zip means "speed", and they wanted to imply their product would be faster than ARC and other compression formats of the time.

18. Yahoo! - internet portal and web directory.
Yahoo!'s history site says the name is an acronym for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle", but some remember that in its early days (mid-1990s), when Yahoo! lived on a server called akebono.stanford.edu, it was glossed as "Yet Another Hierarchical Object Organizer." The word "Yahoo!" was originally invented by Jonathan Swift and used in his book Gulliver's Travels. It represents a person who is repulsive in appearance and action and is barely human. Yahoo! founders Jerry Yang and David Filo selected the name because they considered themselves yahoos.

19. Bit - Claude E. Shannon first used the word bit in a 1948 paper. Shannon's bit is a portmanteau word for binary digit (or possibly binary digit). He attributed its origin to John W. Tukey.

20. Worm - a self-replicating program, similar to a virus.
The name 'worm' was taken from a 1970s science fiction novel by John Brunner entitled The Shockwave Rider. The book describes programs known as "tapeworms" which spread through a network for the purpose of deleting data. Researchers writing an early paper on experiments in distributed computing noted the similarities between their software and the program described by Brunner, and adopted that name.

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

+Famous Books and Writers+

Book's Name                                      Author's Name
A Gift of Monotheists                                                         Ram Mohan Roy
A Minister and his ResponsibilitiesMorarji Bhai Desai
A Nation is MakingSurendra Nath Bandhopadhye
A Pair of Blue EyesThomash Hardy
A Passage to IndiaE. M. Foster
A Revenue Stamp (autobiography)Amrita Pritam
A Strange and Sublime AddressAmit Choudhary
A Suitable BoyBikram Seth
A Tale of Two CitiesCharls Dikens
A Voice of FreedomNayantara Shehgal
A week with GandhiL. Fischer
Adventures of Sherlock HomesArther Canon Doel
All the Prime Minister's MenJanardan Thakur
Allahabad PrasastiHarisen
Amitabh- the Making of the SuperstarSusmita Das Gupta
Amukta MalyadKrishna Deva Raya
An Unknown IndianNirod C. Choudhary
Anand MathBankim Chandra Chattopadhaye
Anna KareninaLeo Tolstoy
AparajitoBibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay
Apple CartG. B. Shaw
AranyakBibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay
ArogyaniketanTarashankar Bandopadhyay
AstyadhayePanini
Bakul KathaAshapurna Devi
Ban Palashir PadabaliRamapada Chowdhury
Bandit QueenMala Sen
Banpalashir PadabaliRamapada Chowdhuri
Bela Obela KalbelaJibanananda Das
Bengali ZamindarNilmoni Mukherjee
BicramanchadevBilhon
Blind BeautyBoris Pasternak
BuddhacharitAsha Ghosh
Captive LadyMichel Madhusudan Dutta
Causes of the Indian MutinySir Syyed Ahmed Khan
CharitraheenSarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
ChidambaraS. N. Panth
Circle of the RegionAmitabha Ghosh
City of Job CharnakNisith Ranjan Roy
Commedy ErrorsShekhspear
Conversations with MyselfNelson Mandela
CoolieMulkraj Anand
Crisis of IndiaRonal Segal
Das CapitalKarl Marks
Death of PresidentW. Marchent
DecamarenBocachio
Desert VillageOliver Goldsmith
DevdasSarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Development as FreedomAmartya Sen
Devi ChaudharaniBankim Chandra Chattopadhaye
Devine ComediDante
Divine LifeSivanand
Economic History of IndiaRamesh Chandra Dutta
End and Means                  Huxlay
Faust          Goethe
Ferary Queen                                                             Edmond Spensar
Freedom at MidnightLapierre & Collins
Friend Not MasterAyub Khan
GanadebataTarashankar Bandopadhyay
Gathering StromChurchil
Ghulam GiriJyotiba Phule
Global Crisis Recession and Uneven RecoveryY.B. Reddy
Great Indian and Their Landmark SpeechesManohar and Sarita Prabhakar
GuidR. K. Narayanan
GurdbahoBakpatiraj
Hero of NymphAurobindo Ghosh
Hind SwarajM. K. Gandhi
Hindu View of LifeS. Radhakrishnan
HistoricaHerodotus
I follow the MahatmaK. M. Munshi
I Van HoWalter Scot
Ignited Minds - Unleashing the power within IndiaDR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
In an Antique LandAmitabh Ghosh
India 2020 - A Vision for the New MillenniumDR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
India DividedRajendra Prashad
India Wins FreedomAbdul Kalam Azad
Indian EpigraphyD. C. Sircar
Indian VillageS.C. Dube
Indian war and IndependenceD. V. Savarkar
IndicaMegasthenis
Infinite JestDavid Foster Wallace
Inheritance of LossKiran Desai
JalsagharTarashankar Bandopadhyay
Jhara PalakJibanananda Das
Jinnah- India, Partition, IndependenceJaswant Singh
Jungle BookR. Kippling
Kanterbary TellsGeofray Chosar
KidnappedStevenson
Kubla KhanColeridge
Lalit BiharAshwa Ghosh
Life DevineAurobindo Ghosh
MahabhashyaPatanjali
Man and SupermanG. B. Shaw
Midnight ChildrenSalman Rushdi
MitaksharaVijnaneswara
Modernization of Indian TraditionYogendra Singh
MotherMaxim Gorkay
Mother IndiaKatharin Mayo
Murder in CathedralElliot
My Country My LifeLal Krishna Advani
My Experiments With TruthM.K. Gandhi
My Indian YearsLord Hardinge II
My JourneyDR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Myth of IndependenceZulfikar Ali Bhutto
Neel DarpanDinbandhu Mitra
Netaji Dead or AliveSamar Guha
New Dimensions of India's Foreign PolicyA. B. Vajpayee
New IndiaAnnie Besant
One Night @ the Call CentreChetan Bhagat
Padma Nadir MajhiManik Bandopadhyay
Pakhtoon                                                         Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Palli SamajSarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Paradise LostJohn Milton
ParineetaSarat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Pather PanchaliBibhuti BHushan Bandopadhaye
Poverty & Un-British Rule in IndiaDadabhai Naoroji
Pratham PratisrutiAshapurna Devi
Precepts of JesusRam Mohan Roy
Principles of SociologyHerbert Spencer
Prison DiaryJay Prakash Narayan
Problems of the EastLord Curzon
Putul Nacher ItikathaManik Bandopadhyay
Races and Cultures of IndiaD.N. Majumdar
RajtaranginiKalhan
RamcharitS. K. Nandi
RashmirathiRamdhari Singh Dinkar
River of SmokeAmitav Ghosh
SaketMathili Saran Gupta
Satyarth PrakashSwami Dayanand
Shadow LineAmitabh Ghosh
Shadow of LadakhB. Bhattacharia
Shape of Things To ComeH. G. Wells
SitaramBankim Chandra Chattopadhaye
Social Structure of ValuesRadha Kamal Mukherjee
Straight from the HeartKapil Dev
SubarnalataAshapurna Devi
Tahakak - E - HIndAlbiruni
TalismanWalter Scott
The Algebra of Infinite JusticeArundhati Roy
The Bandit QueenMala Sen
The City of JoyDhominic Lapier
The Discovery of IndiaJawahar Lal Nehru
The God of Small ThingsArundhuti Roy
The Harry Potter SeriesJ. K. Rowling
The Indian StruggleSubash Chandra Bose
The Indian War of IndependenceV. D. Savarkar
The JudgementKuldip Nayar
The Masque of AfricaV. S. Naipaul
The Miracle of Democracy: India's Amazing JourneyMr. T. S. Krishnamurthy
The Nadars of Tamil NaduD.N. Dhanagre
The Nehrus; Motilal and JawaharlalB. R. Nanda
The PrinceMaciavaly
The Satanic VerseSalman Rushdi
The Science of Bharat NatyamSaroja Vaidyanathan
The Silent CryKenjaburo Ue
The Spirit of IslamSyyed Amir Ali
The White TigerAravind Adiga
Theory of RelativityAlexander Doma
Three MarketiarsEinstein
To all fighters of freedom, Why Socialism?J. P. Narayan
Truth, Love and A Little MaliceKhushwant Singh
Two Leaves and a BudMulkraj Anand
Two LivesVikram Seth
Unhappy IndiaL. Roy
UrbashiR. D. Dinkar
Utopia                                                                     Thomas Moor
Vision of the PastMichel Madhusudan Dutta
Volga Se GangaRahul Sankritayan
War and PeaceTolstoy
What Congress and Gandhi have done to the untouchablesB. R. Ambedkar
Wings of FireDR. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

World Heritage List - India

"LIST OF COUNTRIES BY POPULATION"

Rank Country / Territory Population Date of estimate  % of World population
- World 6,964,600,000 September 27, 2011 100%
1  China, People's Republic 1,339,724,852 November 1, 2010 19.24%
2  India 1,210,193,422 March 1, 2011 17.38%
3  United States 312,303,000 September 27, 2011 4.48%
4  Indonesia 237,556,363 May 2010 3.41%
5  Brazil 190,732,694 August 1, 2010 2.74%
6  Pakistan 177,347,000 September 27, 2011 2.55%
7  Nigeria 158,423,000 2010 2.27%
8  Bangladesh 151,337,000 September 27, 2011 2.17%
9  Russia 142,914,136 January 1, 2011 2.05%
10  Japan 127,950,000 June 1, 2011 1.84%
11  Mexico 112,336,538 April 15, 2011 1.61%
12  Philippines 94,013,200 Mid-2010 1.35%
13  Vietnam 87,375,000 2011 1.25%
14  Ethiopia 82,101,998 2011 1.18%
15  Germany 81,751,602 January 1, 2011 1.17%
16  Egypt 80,878,000 September 27, 2011 1.16%
17  Iran 75,685,000 September 27, 2011 1.09%
18  Turkey 73,722,988 December 31, 2010 1.06%
19  Thailand 67,041,000 July 1, 2010 0.96%
20  Congo, Dem. Rep. 65,966,000 2010 0.95%
21  France 65,821,885 January 1, 2011 0.95%
22  United Kingdom 62,435,709 January 1, 2011 0.9%
23  Italy 60,626,442 December 31, 2010 0.87%
24  South Africa 50,586,757 July 1, 2011 0.73%
25  South Korea 48,988,833 2011 0.7%
26  Myanmar 47,963,000 2010 0.73%
27  Spain 46,125,154 July 1, 2011 0.66%
28  Colombia 46,174,000 September 27, 2011 0.66%
29  Ukraine 45,670,036 August 1, 2011 0.66%
30  Tanzania 43,187,823 2010 0.62%
31  Argentina 40,091,359 October 27, 2010 0.58%
32  Kenya 38,610,097 August 24–25, 2009 0.55%
33  Poland 38,186,860 2010 0.55%
34  Algeria 36,300,000 January 1, 2011 0.52%
35  Canada 34,597,000 September 27, 2011 0.5%
36  Morocco 32,270,000 September 27, 2011 0.46%
37  Uganda 31,800,000 2010 0.46%
38  Iraq 31,672,000 2010 0.45%
39  Afghanistan 31,412,000 2010 0.42%
40  Sudan 30,894,000 2008 0.44%
41  Peru 29,461,933 June 30, 2010 0.42%
42  Venezuela 29,380,000 September 27, 2011 0.42%
43  Nepal 28,584,975 2011 0.41%
44  Malaysia 28,334,135 2010 0.4%
45  Uzbekistan 27,445,000 2010 0.4%
46  Saudi Arabia 27,136,977 2010 0.39%
47  Ghana 24,233,431 September 26, 2010 0.35%
48  North Korea 24,052,231 2008 0.35%
49  Syria 23,695,000 2010 0.34%
50  China, Republic of (Taiwan) 23,188,078 July 31, 2011 0.33%
51  Australia 22,717,490 September 27, 2011 0.33%
52  Yemen 22,492,035 2009 0.32%
53  Romania 21,413,815 January 1, 2011 0.31%
54  Madagascar 20,714,000 2010 0.3%
55  Sri Lanka 20,653,000 2010 0.3%
56  Mozambique 20,579,265 2007 0.3%
57  Côte d'Ivoire 19,738,000 2010 0.28%
58  Cameroon 19,406,100 January 1, 2010 0.28%
59  Angola 19,082,000 2010 0.27%
60  Chile 17,285,900 September 27, 2011 0.25%
61  Netherlands 16,698,900 September 27, 2011 0.24%
62  Kazakhstan 16,518,000 May 1, 2011 0.24%
63  Burkina Faso 15,730,977 July 1, 2010 0.23%
64  Niger 15,730,754 2011 0.23%
65  Malawi 14,901,000 2010 0.23%
66  Mali 14,517,176 April 1, 2009 0.21%
67  Guatemala 14,361,666 2010 0.21%
68  Ecuador 14,306,876 November 28, 2010 0.21%
69  Cambodia 13,395,682 March 3, 2008 0.19%
70  Zambia 13,046,508 October 16, 2010 0.19%
71  Zimbabwe 12,571,000 2010 0.18%
72  Senegal 12,434,000 2010 0.18%
73  Cuba 11,241,161 December 31, 2010 0.16%
74  Chad 11,227,000 2010 0.17%
75  Belgium 10,918,405 January 1, 2011 0.16%
76  Greece 10,787,690 June 1, 2011 0.16%
77  Portugal 10,636,979 January 1, 2011 0.15%
78  Tunisia 10,549,100 July 1, 2010 0.15%
79  Czech Republic 10,535,811 March 31, 2011 0.15%
80  Bolivia 10,426,154 2010 0.15%
81  Rwanda 10,412,820 2010 0.15%
82  Haiti 10,085,214 2010 0.14%
83  Hungary 9,986,000 January 1, 2011 0.14%
84  Guinea 9,982,000 2010 0.15%
85  Belarus 9,503,807 2009 0.14%
86  Sweden 9,440,588 May 31, 2011 0.14%
87  Dominican Republic 9,378,818 December 1, 2010 0.13%
88  Somalia 9,331,000 2010 0.13%
89  Azerbaijan 9,165,000 July 1, 2011 0.13%
90  Benin 8,778,646 2010 0.13%
91  Austria 8,404,252 January 1, 2011 0.12%
92  Burundi 8,383,000 2010 0.12%
93  United Arab Emirates 8,264,070 Mid-2010 0.119%
94  South Sudan 8,260,490 2008 0.12%
95  Honduras 8,215,313 2011 0.12%
96  Switzerland 7,866,500 December 31, 2010 0.11%
97  Israel 7,759,300 June 30, 2011 0.11%
98  Bulgaria 7,364,570 February, 2011 0.11%
99  Serbia 7,306,677 January 1, 2010 0.1%
100  Hong Kong 7,097,600 December 31, 2010 0.102%
101  Tajikistan 6,879,000 2010 0.102%
102  Papua New Guinea 6,703,000 2010 0.099%
103  Libya 6,355,000 2010 0.094%
104  Laos 6,230,200 2010 0.089%
105  Paraguay 6,230,000 2010 0.093%
106  Jordan 6,187,000 2010 0.093%
107  Togo 6,028,000 2010 0.087%
108  Sierra Leone 5,868,000 2010 0.084%
109  Nicaragua 5,788,000 2010 0.084%
110  El Salvador 5,744,113 2009 0.082%
111  Denmark 5,564,219 April 1, 2011 0.08%
112  Slovakia 5,435,273 December 31, 2010 0.078%
113  Finland 5,391,740 September 27, 2011 0.077%
114  Kyrgyzstan 5,362,800 2009 0.077%
115  Eritrea 5,254,000 2010 0.075%
116  Singapore 5,076,700 June 30, 2010 0.073%
117  Turkmenistan 5,042,000 2010 0.074%
118  Norway 4,970,900 September 27, 2011 0.071%
119  Ireland 4,581,269 April 10, 2011 0.066%
120  Costa Rica 4,563,538 2010 0.066%
121  Central African Republic 4,401,000 2010 0.065%
122  Georgia 4,436,400 January 1, 2010 0.064%
123  New Zealand 4,417,500 September 27, 2011 0.063%
124  Croatia 4,290,612 2011 0.062%
125  Lebanon 4,228,000 2010 0.061%
126  Republic of the Congo 4,043,000 2010 0.054%
127  Liberia 3,994,000 2010 0.059%
128  Palestinian territories 3,935,249 2009 0.057%
129  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,843,126 June 30, 2010 0.055%
130  Puerto Rico 3,725,789 April 1, 2010 0.053%
131  Moldova 3,563,800 January 1, 2010 0.051%
132  Mauritania 3,460,000 2010 0.048%
133  Panama 3,405,813 May 16, 2010 0.049%
134  Uruguay 3,356,584 June 30, 2010 0.048%
135  Armenia 3,264,500 June 2011 0.047%
136  Lithuania 3,221,200 June 2011 0.046%
137  Albania 3,195,000 January 1, 2010 0.046%
138  Mongolia 2,822,100 September 27, 2011 0.04%
139  Kuwait 2,737,000 2010 0.044%
140  Jamaica 2,705,827 December 31, 2010 0.039%
141  Oman 2,694,094 December 12, 2010 0.039%
142  Latvia 2,218,800 June 2011 0.032%
143  Lesotho 2,171,000 2010 0.03%
144  Namibia 2,088,669 2008 0.03%
145  Macedonia, Republic 2,057,284 January 1, 2011 0.03%
146  Slovenia 2,053,280 September 27, 2011 0.029%
147  Botswana 1,800,098 2010 0.026%
148  Gambia 1,728,000 2010 0.025%
149  Qatar 1,696,563 April 20, 2010 0.024%
150  Guinea-Bissau 1,515,000 2010 0.024%
151  Gabon 1,505,000 2010 0.022%
152  Estonia 1,340,122 January 1, 2011 0.019%
153  Trinidad and Tobago 1,317,714 July 1, 2010 0.019%
154  Mauritius 1,280,925 July 1, 2010 0.018%
155  Bahrain 1,234,596 2010 0.012%
156  Swaziland 1,186,000 2010 0.017%
157  East Timor 1,124,000 2010 0.017%
158  Djibouti 889,000 2010 0.013%
159  Fiji 861,000 2010 0.012%
160  Cyprus 804,435 January 1, 2011 0.012%
161  Guyana 784,894 2010 0.011%
162  Comoros 735,000 2010 0.01%
163  Equatorial Guinea  700,000 2010 0.01%
164  Bhutan 695,822 2010 0.01%
165  Montenegro 625,266 2011 0.009%
166  Macau 556,800 March 31, 2011 0.008%
167  Western Sahara 531,000 2010 0.008%
168  Solomon Islands 530,669 2010 0.008%
169  Suriname 525,000 2010 0.008%
170  Luxembourg 502,100 2010 0.007%
171  Cape Verde 491,575 June 16, 2010 0.007%
172  Malta 417,608 January 1, 2011 0.006%
173  Brunei 399,000 2010 0.006%
174  Bahamas 353,658 May 3, 2010 0.005%
175  Belize 333,200 Mid-2009 0.005%
176  Iceland 318,452 January 1, 2011 0.005%
177  Maldives 317,280 2010 0.005%
178  Barbados 273,000 2010 0.004%
179  Vanuatu 240,000 2010 0.004%
180  Samoa 187,032 2010 0.003%
181  Saint Lucia 166,526 May 10, 2010 0.002%
182  São Tomé and Príncipe 165,000 2010 0.002%
183  Guam 159,436 April 1, 2010 0.002%
184  Curaçao 142,180 January 1, 2010 0.002%
185  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 109,000 2010 0.002%
186  Aruba 107,000 2010 0.002%
187  U.S. Virgin Islands 106,405 April 1, 2010 0.002%
188  Grenada 104,000 2010 0.001%
189  Tonga 104,000 2010 0.001%
190  Micronesia, Federated States 102,624 April 4, 2010 0.001%
191  Kiribati 100,000 2010 0.001%
192  Jersey 92,500 December 31, 2009 0.001%
193  Antigua and Barbuda 89,000 2010 0.001%
194  Seychelles 86,525 July 1, 2010 0.001%
195  Andorra 84,082 December 31, 2009 0.001%
196  Isle of Man 83,000 2010 0.001%
197  Dominica 68,000 2010 0.001%
198  Bermuda 64,566 July 1, 2010 0.001%
199  Guernsey 62,431 March 31, 2010 0.001%
200  Greenland 56,452 2010 0.001%
201  American Samoa 55,519 April 1, 2010 0.001%
202  Cayman Islands 54,878 October 10, 2010 0.001%
203  Marshall Islands 54,305 2010 0.001%
204  Northern Mariana Islands 53,883 April 1, 2010 0.001%
205  Saint Kitts and Nevis 52,000 2010 0.001%
206  Faroe Islands 48,596 April 1, 2011 0.001%
207  Turks and Caicos Islands 40,357 2010 0.0006%
208  Sint Maarten 37,429 January 1, 2010 0.0005%
209  Liechtenstein 36,157 December 31, 2010 0.0005%
210  Monaco 35,000 2010 0.0005%
211  San Marino 31,887 December 31, 2010 0.0005%
212  Gibraltar 29,441 2010 0.0004%
213  British Virgin Islands 28,213 2008 0.0004%
214  Cook Islands 24,600 December 2010 0.0004%
215  Palau 20,000
0.0003%
216  Anguilla 15,236 2011 0.0002%
217  Nauru 10,000
0.0001%
218  Tuvalu 10,000
0.0001%
219  Montserrat 6,000
0.0001%
220  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 4,000
0.0001%
221  Falkland Islands 3,000
0.00005%
222  Niue 1,500
0.00003%
223  Tokelau 1,100
0.00003%
224  Vatican City 500
0.00001%
225  Pitcairn Islands 50
0.000001%



Courtesy: Wikipedia

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